Maui’s beaches are losing sand: Maui native sand has taken tens of thousands of years to form, and has been lost through direct human activity at an alarming rate. Sand mining has occurred since before WW2. Sand mining operations at Spreckelsville area saw the digging out of precious coral sands from the local beaches, to feed the HC&S lime kiln near Paia for about 70 years. A huge amount of Maui sand is mined from inland sand dune stocks too, and the majority is exported to Oahu for cement production. Over 70% of Maui sand mined is sent to Oahu.
WWII Artifacts at Kanaha:
World War 2 – WWII, brought dramatic changes to Kanaha. the building of the NAS, Naval Air station in Kahului, aka “NASKa”. (Now known as Kahului Airport – OGG). There are also coastal fortifications for artillery, as well as new roads, and recreational; facilities for the troops. Artifacts and evidence of our history are spread throughout the beach and dunes. Unfortunately there seems to have been no effort to preserve these artifacts and many are still undocumented. If you explore the area you will find many interesting and intriguing things.
Military on Maui during WWII: Maui was a huge training area for the military during the war. There were two major airfields, and camps and training areas all over the island.
Preserve our History: Please do not take away or disturb any artifacts as they are part of the historical record, and give us information about our recent history.
Here is a shoreline bunker, it was originally on land but shoreline erosion has caused it to be in the ocean.
(*Since before the war and up until the late 1970’s sand mining and sand removal continued in these areas for decades accelerating the beach loss).
This is what appears to be an artillery placement, and it is adjacent to a concrete bunker at Ka’a Point. Once it would have had a 270 degree view of the Kahului bay, but it is now surrounded by Kiawe trees.
This rusting collection of metal includes rails and rail wheels. Is it part of the same installation or is it something different? There is all kinds of metal pieces strewn all over this area, presumably from ww2 era equipment.
Here is a concrete bunker hidden in the dunes behind the beach.
Where did the first plants come from: One widely held theory believes that Hawaii sprang from the ocean as a volcanic peak, and eventually had permanent above water land area. It would have had occasional rainfall, and salt spray, and the inter-tidal shoreline would have been populated first with seaweed. But the land based plants had to get here from somewhere else. Maybe the first plants arrived here as seeds carried in high altitude air currents, microscopic fungus spores could travel this way too. Some seeds or living plant material were probably carried on the backs of birds, or in their bellies, and generously deposited in bird droppings. Some seeds can survive floating on the ocean, and come ashore on distant shores, like the Niu (coconut) which does this. The coconut (which is a seed) floats well and can survive for up to 4 months at sea and still germinate. It is an interesting feature of some plants that their seeds actually benefit from being in salt water for a period of time before germinating. Another mechanism for species distribution is the tsunami. Tsunamis can dislodge large trees, logs and floating debris from one location, a continent or island, and set it adrift. Large floating trees are floating rafts that could transport plant life, insects and maybe even small creatures like geckos. These processes take tens of thousands of years to build up a variety of plant life that we see in Hawaii today. After the first living creatures arrived they were kept in isolation to grow and evolve into unique versions of themselves. Species that landed on different Hawaiian islands would sometimes diverge and become entirely different species. Some species even evolved differently on different sides of a mountain ranges or on the different peaks, separated by valleys. Micro climates created micro ecosystems, that pushed diversity even further.
Polynesian introduced Plants: The first people to come to the islands were Polynesian voyagers, and they brought with them food supplies, and seedlings plants and animals. The needed to be able to start a settlement and have the useful plants from their homeland available to them. Their Plants may have been intended for food, medicinal, functional, or even ceremonial use. We know that many Hawaiian plants have great utility and many different uses (see the list at end of this post). Polynesian plants are now distributed all over the pacific. Testimony to the success of Polynesian voyagers, and their ability to navigate and colonize distant lands.
Hawaiian Canoe Plants: The plants that the Polynesian voyagers brought with them in their canoes are sometimes called the “canoe plants”. Estimates of the number of different type plants brought to Hawaii by early Polynesians is thought to be around 32 species. There is some debate as to whether the first coconuts in Hawaii were here already, even though the Polynesians would have almost certainly brought them also. Several other species, like Milo, and Hau, Kou, which are widespread coastal species fairly common throughput Polynesia, might have also migrated here by themselves. The Canoe Plants include;`Ape, `Awa, `Awapuhi, Hau, Ipu, Kalo, Kamani, Ki, Ko, Kou, Kukui, Mai`a, Milo, Niu, Noni, `Ohe, `Ohi`a, `Ai, `Olena, Olona, Pia, `Uala, Uhi, `Ulu, Wauke.
Alien Species: All plants that were brought in by people are considered Alien species. The Polynesians introductions were also called “canoe plants” are well suited to the tropical climate and have been cultivated for hundreds of years. The arrival of Captain Cook in 1778, marks the beginning of the early European introductions. Cook deliberately planted several food new food species and brought in some animals too. Some other species may have arrived by accident. Weeds, plants, and seeds can travel on ships from foreign lands, and have a way of spreading wherever they go.
Native Plants impacted by Livestock: Captain Cook brought with him livestock and several plants species that he left here, and they changed the island biology for ever. Notably he left a gift of pigs and goats, with instructions that they be left alone and be allowed to multiply. These animals did multiply and ultimately ran wild. Feral Pigs and Goats started eating all types of native plants, and began causing soil erosion, and are implicated in including destroying most of the the Koa forests, along with other introduced livestock. Early livestock introductions included several types ungulates (cloven foot animals) including Goats, Pigs and Cattle. Today there an estimated 5000 exotic species in the Hawaiian Islands.
Settlers and Traders: When traders, settlers, and travelers came to Hawaii they brought fruit trees, and ornamental plants for their gardens. Businessmen and entrepreneurs who wanted to farm here, brought in crops and plants that they wanted to farm here. And sometimes when those crops failed, more species and varieties of foreign plants were brought in and attempted to be used.
Cattle Ranchers: Ranchers introduced fountain grass, native to North Africa, and mullein. After 1905, they introduced kiawe as another cattle feed. Kiawe trees are a terrible blight on the Hawaiian landscape, they are thorny and unplesent trees that spread quickly and can survive in arid climates by sucking up every last drop of available water, usually at the expense of the other (native) plants surrounding them. Kiawe trees are slowly being eradicated at KKanaha and replaced with Better suited local and native trees. Suffice to say all of the plants that the cattle ranchers have introduced have long since run wild and are way out of control, as tenacious invasive species. And unfortunately the cycle is about to begin all over again as a new plant for cattle feed is about to be introduced into Maui’s ecosystem, “Sorghum”. There are plans to turn Maui’s former sugar cane fields into Sorghum fields. the sorghum is intended to be used as cattle feed. So this is how the cycle of another exotic species gets started, with little thought to the long term biological consequences.
Invasive Species & Biological Controls: Some crops and supplies brought in pests, insects and diseases. Biological controls were introduced to deal with pests and diseases. this lead to more alien species being released in the islands. Alien species have no natural enemies, here so that usually thrive and out compete native species, so a normal ornamental house plant from the mainland, would become a fast growing invasive weed here is a short time.
Supplying Sailing Ships: As Hawaii became a port of call for whaling and trading ships, there was a need to restock these ships with water and food. Whalers wanted more than the local diet of fish and poi, so there was a market for fruits and vegetables, and livestock.
Indigenous, Endemic, Endangered native Plants: There are many rare and endangered plants in Hawaii, they are under a lot of competition from exotics. There is a growing interest in Hawaiian native Plants, and a responsibility to ensure that they do not become extinct. More and more public parks, gardens, and open spaces are being returned to a more natural state. Exotic ornamental plants are gradually being replaced with native species. And also in the shoreline areas, we are using native species to help stabilize sand dunes and to prevent erosion and soil loss.
Specialized birds and bees need specific plants: Native plants have the added benefits of providing habitat for native insects and animal species. Many insects will only live on, and reproduce in specific native species. there is a lot of specialization among native species, and they need insects to pollinate the particular plant and the native insects and animals need a specific plant for food. There is also a newly discovered microbiology that is also discovered working in the soil and below ground, certain types of organisms need the dead parts of a specific plant to live, and in return supply nutrients back to the plant.
|This is a list of some of our favorite plants at Kanaha Beach, each plant is listed twice,once with the common name first, and than with the scientific name first:|
|Aalii (Dodonaea viscosa) Native : Indigenous|
|AKIA (Wikstroemia uva-ursi) Native : Endemic|
|Akiaki (Sporobolus virginicus) Native : Indigenous|
|Aweoweo (Chenopodium oahuense) Native : Endemic|
|Beach pea, nanea (Vigna marina) Native : Indigenous|
|Chenopodium oahuense (Aweoweo) Native : Endemic|
|Coconut palm, niu (Cocos nucifera) Non-Native : Polynesian|
|Cocos nucifera (Coconut palm, niu) Non-Native : Polynesian|
|Cordia subcordata (Kou) Native : Indigenous|
|Cordyline fruticosa (Ti leaf, ki) Non-Native : Polynesian|
|Dodonaea viscosa (Aalii) Native : Indigenous|
|Dwarf naupaka (Scaevola coriacea) Native : Endemic|
|Erythrina sandwicensis (WILIWILI) Native : Endemic|
|Gossypium tomentosum (Mao, Hawaiian cotton) Native : Endemic|
|Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum (Hinahina, hinahina ku kahakai, nohonohopuuone, pohinahina) Hina Hina|
|Hibiscus brackenridgei (Mao hau hele) Native : Endemic|
|Hibiscus ovalifolius (Rock’s hibiscus) Non-Native : Naturalized|
|Hibiscus ovalifolius (Rock’s hibiscus) Non-Native : Naturalized|
|IHI (Portulaca lutea) Native : Indigenous|
|IHI (Portulaca Molokiniensis) Native : Endemic|
|IHI (Portulaca villosa) Endemic|
|ILIAHI ALOE (Santalum ellipticum) Native : Endemic (Iliahialoe, coast sandalwood)|
|Ilima (Sida fallax) Native : Indigenous|
|Ipomoea indica (Koali awa) Native : Indigenous|
|Ipomoea pes-caprae (POHUEHUE)|
|Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis (Pohuehue, beach morning glory)|
|Jacquemontia ovalifolia (PAU O HIIAKA) Endemic|
|Jacquemontia sandwicensis (Pau o Hiiaka) Native : Endemic|
|Koali awa (Ipomoea indica) Native : Indigenous|
|KOU (Cordia subcordata) Native : Indigenous|
|Lycium sandwicense (OHELO KAI) Native : Indigenous|
|MAO (Gossypium tomentosum) Native : Endemic (Hawaiian cotton)|
|Mao hau hele (Hibiscus brackenridgei) Native : Endemic|
|MILO (Thespesia populnea) Native : Indigenous?|
|Myoporum sandwicense (Naio) Native : Indigenous|
|Naio (Myoporum sandwicense) Native : Indigenous|
|Nama sandwicensis (Hinahina kahakai) Native?|
|Nanea, Beach pea (Vigna marina) Indigenous|
|NAUPAKA (Scaevola taccada) Native : Indigenous|
|Nicotaina Glauca (Tree Tobacco) status = Non-native Invasive, (But it is an important Host plant, for endangered moth)|
|Niu, Cocos nucifera Non-Native : Polynesian|
|OHAI (Sesbania tomentosa) Native : Endemic|
|OHELO KAI (Lycium sandwicense) Native : Indigenous|
|PAU O HIIAKA (Jacquemontia ovalifolia) Endemic|
|POHINAHINA (Vitex rotundifolia) Native : Indigenous|
|POHUEHUE (Ipomoea pes-caprae)|
|POPOLO (Solanum nelsonii) Native : Endemic|
|Portulaca lutea (Ihi) Native : Indigenous|
|Portulaca Molokiniensis (IHI) Native : Endemic|
|Portulaca villosa (IHI) Endemic|
|Santalum ellipticum (ILIAHI ALOE) Native : Endemic|
|Scaevola coriacea (Dwarf naupaka) Native : Endemic|
|Scaevola taccada (Naupaka) Native : Indigenous|
|Sesbania tomentosa (OHAI) Native : Endemic|
|Sida fallax (Ilima) Native : Indigenous|
|Solanum nelsonii (Popolo) Native : Endemic|
|Sporobolus virginicus (Akiaki) Native : Indigenous|
|Thespesia populnea (MILO) Native : Indigenous?|
|Tournefortia argentea (Tree heliotrope) Non-Native : Naturalized|
|Tree Heliotrope (Tournefortia argentea) Non-Native : Naturalized|
|Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana Glauca) status?? Introduced : Invasive (host plant for endangered Blackburn Moth)|
|Uhaloa (Waltheria indica) Native : Indigenous?|
|Vigna marina (Beach pea, nanea) Native : Indigenous|
|Vitex rotundifolia (Pohinahina) Native : Indigenous|
|Vitex trifolia (Vitex) Non-native : cultivated (?Misidentified pohinahina?)|
|Waltheria indica (Uhaloa) Native : Indigenous?|
|Wikstroemia uva-ursi (Akia) Native : Endemic|
|WILIWILI (Erythrina sandwicensis) Native : Endemic|
|Native = This means they are natural to the area, they are from here.|
|Indigenous = a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.|
|Endemic = Endemic means they are found nowhere else. Endemic means exclusively native to the biota of a specific place.|
|Polynesian = Polynesian plants were brought here by Hawaii’s first settlers. Also known as the “Canoe Plants”.|
|Cultivated = Cultivated plants are used deliberately, but may have escaped into the wild.|
|Alien = Alien plants got here after first contact, usually defined as 1778 the arrival of Captain Cook.|
|Endangered = Endangered plants are low in number so that the species is threatened. They have special legal protection too.|
The species name sandwicensis refers to the “Sandwich Islands,” as the Hawaiian Islands were once called, and named by James Cook on one of his voyages in the 1770s. James Cook named the islands after John Montagu (The fourth Earl of Sandwich) for supporting Cook’s voyages.
Here is a PDF of Kanaha Plants from Hear with some pictures:
Here is a link to the Canoe Plants website:
Uses for Hawaiian Plants:
NATIVE PLANTS: native Plants include, indigenous, endemic and endangered species. native plants have persisted despite competition from invasive species. Re-vegetation programs, and weed control have brought back the flora to near pristine condition in many areas. Native plants are b est suited to the dry coastal environment and once established thrive here. Natives provide an important part of the coastal ecosystem, Stabilizing dunes, trapping moisture, shading the ground, habitat and food source for native insects and fauna. Kanaha’s established flora has become a repository for many species. Seeds are collected here for the reforestation projects on the island of Kaho’olawe and other areas. Indigenous plants are used in traditional Lei making, and for medicine and other practical purposes. Native plant destruction from off-road beach driving has been reduced and controlled with the addition of beach fences and designated driveways and parking areas. The efforts of many hard working volunteers have made all the difference in the revival of Kanaha’s Flora over the years. To ensure that Kanaha’s natural beauty will be preserved for future generations.
Indigenous and endemic Native Species: These plants occur naturally in Hawaii, either migrating here as seeds floating on the ocean, or carried by birds and wind. The endemic plants have evolved into unique species that are found nowhere else in the world. Many plants are endangered because of the destruction to their natural habitat. Some of the endemic/endangered plants at Kanaha are species unique to Maui. In some cases there are only several hundred individual plants of a single species remaining in the wild, therefore every individual plant is important for the perpetuation of the species.
Indigenous or endemic plants at Kanaha include: Iliahialoe (Santalum ellipticum), Naupaka (Scaevola sericea), Dwarf Naupaka (Scaevola coriacea), Pohuehue (Ipomoea pes-caprae subsp. brasiliensis), (ipomoea_indica), Pohinahina (Vitex rotundifolia), Akia (Wikstroemia uva-ursi), Ilima papa (sida fallax), Nehe (Lipochaeta integrifolia), Nama (Nama sandwicensis) Aeae (Bacopa monnieri), Ihi (portulaca_lutea, portulaca molokiniensis), Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis), Loulu (Pritchardia sp.), Popolo (Solanum nelsonii), Hinahina (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum), Nena (Heliotropium curassavicum), Ohai (Sesbania tomentosa), Naio (Myoporum sandwicense).
Hawaiian (Polynesian) Traditional Plants: It is believed that this group of plants were first brought to Hawaii by the early Polynesian settlers hundreds of years ago. Chants and oral history tell how these highly valued plants were brought along on the original sailing-canoe voyages from (Tahiti). The best known examples include, Milo (Thespesia populnea), Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus), Kou (Cordia subcordata ), Ti leaf (Cordyline fruticosa), Taro (), Coconut (Niu) Hala tree (Pandanus tectorus). These trees are considered sacred to Hawaiians and have many uses in traditional culture. The living plant, the wood, sap, leaves, roots, fruits and flowers may be used in a variety of ways. Some woods are used in canoe building, fish-trap making, tools, and sacred objects. The spiny leaves of the Hala tree called “Lau hala” were made into cloth by weaving. The flowers of certain plants have medicinal properties, and the flowers, seeds, sap and bark are sometimes used to make dyes.
Maui Boardsailing Association
Sail Safe Guidelines for windsurfing on Maui
In the interest of promoting safe and enjoyable windsurfing for everyone on Maui, the Maui Boardsailing Association has drawn up the guidelines for beach and water etiquette and safety. Please respect other beach users, and adhere to these guidelines so we can continue to enjoy this great water sport on our island.
MBA SAIL-SAFE GUIDELINES AND SUMMARY
Please Observe the Following Guidelines:
● SWIMMING AREAS marked by buoys. DO NOT sail, launch or jibe within these areas. See attached map for “No Boardsailing” and “Swimming Only” zones.
● SLOW NO-WAKE ZONE – 200 feet from all beaches.
● NO JIBING within 200 feet of all beaches. 200 feet CLEAR ZONE AROUND ALL DIVERS.
● Current WEATHER reports and forecasts.
● DO NOT sail in offshore winds.
● KNOW and COMPLY with ALL NAVIGATION rules applicable to sail powered craft.
● DO NOT sail in areas or conditions which EXCEED your SAILING SKILLS.
● NEVER sail ALONE.
● The Hookipa 5 man rule at Middles and 10 man rule at H’Poko.
● TO ALL swimmers, snorkelers, divers, surfers, fishermen and waterstarters.
● TO SAILOR on starboard tack.
● TO FIRST SAILOR ON WAVE.
● USE CAUTION in areas shared by divers, swimmers, snorkelers, and fishermen as they have right of way.
● MOVE your rig at least 40 feet from water’s edge.
● PREVENT “FLY-AWAYS” – Secure your rig at all times.
● NO BOARDSAILING at Baldwin Beach or Paia Beach Park.
● NO SAILING at Kanaha or Camp One before 11:00 am (With exception for beginners).
WATCH OUT FOR WHALES
● To protect our whales, the law requires that you maintain a safe distance from them: KIHEI – minimum 100 yards Violators of this law are subject to a maximum fine of $25,000.
Maui’s beaches and ocean environment belong to everyone. Be safe, considerate, and keep beach areas clean of litter and trash. SAIL-SAFE – MAUI STYLE
MBA – MAUI BOARDSAILING ASSOCIATION
415 Dairy Road, Suite A Kahului, Maui, HI 96732
- Promote the “Sail Safe” program and educate residents and tourists on “Sail Safe” rules and etiquette.
- Promote relations with other ocean users. Develop a program for satisfactory “mutual use” of the ocean, respecting others’ rights and maintaining responsible windsurfing rights.
- Accept input, ideas and suggestions from MBA members at regular meetings to solve present and future problems.
- Develop and sponsor events for the purpose of uniting the windsurfing community and benefiting the community at large.
- Serve as the unified voice, the “spokesperson” for all media, political and community contacts.
- Act as forum for the windsurfing community to air views, ideas and suggested actions.
- Act as liaison with community and political groups and representatives to further relations and advance responsible use of the ocean and beaches.
- Develop an active “Beach patrol Program” for policing rules.
- Protect and develop the rights of people who wish to windsurf and to maximize the enjoyment of the sport by developing solutions to growth-related problems.
MAUI BOARDSAILING ASSOCIATION
415 Dairy Road, Suite A, Kahului, Maui, HI 96732
Above guidelines courtesy of MBA – MAUI BOARDSAILING ASSOCIATION
Vehicular access to Kanaha Beach Park will be blocked by two locked gates beginning Nov. 1 from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m., but a permitting process is in the works that would allow fishermen and divers access after hours, county officials said Wednesday.
Newly installed gates will be locked on Amala Place near the wastewater treatment plant and on Kaa Street, near the rental car facilities at Kahului Airport, the county Department of Parks and Recreation said in a news release. All vehicles must be removed before the gates are locked or they will be towed.
Fishermen, divers, surfers, paddlers, volleyball players and all Kanaha Beach Park users are being impacted by the Parks and Recreation Department’s unpublicized decision to change park rules/signage. The original signs read “Park Hours 6:30 a.m.-8 p.m.” New signs now read “Park Hours 7 a.m.-7 p.m.”
There is no regard for the early morning recreationists trying to maintain a healthy lifestyle by getting in the water before heading to work. This action is also denying early evening access to the park for any kind of recreation, surfing, fishing, volleyball, paddling, diving, picnicking.
The “No Parking from 8 p.m.-5 a.m.” signs along Amala Road, just outside the park gates, have been replaced with “No Parking” signs. It seems because the department could not control the illegal campers/homeless, they are now penalizing the entire community. Had the department enforced the original parking signs we would not be in this situation.
Turtles live year round in the waters off Kanaha, some will occasionally come ashore to build nests and lay eggs. If you see a turtle hauled out on the beach stay away from it and let it rest. If you see a turtle’s nest do not disturb it. It is best if you can report its location to the lifeguards so that they can protect it from harm. Turtle species we see at Kanaha include some endangered species such as the Green sea turtle, Hawksbill, and Leatherback. Turtles (Honu) do their part eating algae and some species will eat jellyfish. Unfortunately they occasionally eat trash (perhaps mistaking plastic bags for jellyfish) and get sick.
When enjoying water sports, paddling or windsurfing etc, please keep an eye out for Turtles in the water and do everything you can to avoid them. Respect them in their home, and actively avoid disturbing them in any way.
Marine mammals you can see at Kanaha include:
- The Hawaiian monk seal (`Ilio-holo-i-ka-uaua.),
- Dolphins (spinner, bottlenose, and spotted) (Nai’a in Hawaiian) and
- Whales (Kohola).
All marine mammals are protected from harm or harassment in Hawaiian waters. Do not approach a marine mammal or attempt to interfere with them in any way.
SHARKS (Mano) species include, Grey (Mano), Whitetip reef (Mano lalakea), hammerhead, and Tiger shark (Niuhi). Occasionally Hawaiian waters are home to the Whale Shark (which is more shark than whale). Sharks rarely attack humans, however you should always use caution when entering the ocean. Never go into the ocean if you are cut or bleeding. Stay away from dead fish, fishermen, nets. Stay away from streams and rivers especially after rain, and when the water is murky from rainfall runoff. Do not swim too far from shore, alone or at night. Do not enter the water if there has been a shark sighting. Follow warning signs and directives of the lifeguards. If you see a shark while swimming, swim calmly to shore, do not splash excessively, and try to keep your eye on the shark at all times.